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Cultivation of Cannabis in Oklahoma

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  • Download scientific diagram | 2 Cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway, leading to the two major phytocannabinoids, THC and CBD (courtesy J. McPartland) from. Biosynthetic Pathway Leading to Phytocannabinoids . effects linked to the use of natural Cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, respectively. CBD's action with the CB2 receptor is just one of several pathways by which . of conditions associated with progressive neuronal loss leading to a variety . Synthetic cannabinoids studies have shown they can protect OPCs.

    to Phytocannabinoids Biosynthetic Pathway Leading

    The two main endocannabinoids found are the anandamide N-arachidonoylethanolamine or ANA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol 2-AG. Endocannabinoids are the molecules that act as natural key for the main cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and cause their activation and subsequent action.

    CB1 is mainly located in the central nervous system and it is responsible for the effects mediated by neuronal processes and psychoactive 'secondary' effects. CB2 is mainly located in the immune system and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects. CB2 receptors have been recently discovered in the central nervous system, the microglial cells and they seem to be in certain neurons as well. However, it remains a quite controversial and debated issue. The main difference between phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids is that the latter are fully synthetic and created in the laboratory.

    More recently, some selective cannabinoids for CB1 receptor, such as JHW y JHW, have been used as psychoactive ingredients in smart drugs marketed as imitations of Cannabis effects. There is not much information about the effects of synthetic cannabinoids in humans, although some of them have already shown to cause more distress and panic than phytocannabinoids.

    Synthetic cannabinoids have been designed as research tools for cannabinoid scientific studies, however, they have never shown to be reliable for human consumption in clinical testing. In theory, they should have never left the laboratory where they where designed and synthesised. Trichomes are present in most of the aerial surfaces of the plant. These structures together with cannabinoids are also found in most of terpenes monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes , which provide each species with a different aroma, depending on their number and combination.

    This is the reason why it can be said that trichomes are the most interesting part of Cannabis for pharmacognosy experts. Cannabis researchers speak of two types of non-glandular trichome simple unicellular trichomes and natural killer trichomes that have not been associated with terpenoid biosynthesis.

    Three types of glandular trichome have been found in female Cannabis plants: It has been shown that male plants have a fourth type of glandular trichome, the glandular trichome of the anthers which only has been found in the anthers. Phytocannabinoids are more abundant in capitate-stalked trichome.

    This kind of trichome appears during the flowering period and forms the thickest cover in pistilated flowers' bracts. A high concentration of capitate-stalked trichome can also be found in the small leaves that go with flowers. Phytocannabinoids are less abundant in plant foliage leaves and stems, while they are quite rare or non-existent in the roots. The most plausible hypothesis is that they offer defensive properties against biotic stress insects, bacteria and fungi and abiotic stress drying and ultraviolet radiation of the plant.

    They are subsequently accumulated in the adjacent secretory cavity and finally emitted as resins, or their synthases are directly secreted in the secretory cavity. However, it can join certain vanilloids receptors, but its effects are not fully understood yet. In addition to this, it does act against proliferation. Strains used in medicine are often bred for high CBD content, and strains used for recreational purposes are usually bred for high THC content or for a specific chemical balance.

    Liquid chromatography LC techniques are also possible and, unlike GC methods, can differentiate between the acid and neutral forms of the cannabinoids. There have been systematic attempts to monitor the cannabinoid profile of cannabis over time, but their accuracy is impeded by the illegal status of the plant in many countries.

    Cannabinoids can be administered by smoking, vaporizing, oral ingestion, transdermal patch, intravenous injection, sublingual absorption, or rectal suppository. Once in the body, most cannabinoids are metabolized in the liver , especially by cytochrome P mixed-function oxidases, mainly CYP 2C9.

    Some is also stored in fat in addition to being metabolized in the liver. These metabolites are the chemicals recognized by common antibody-based "drug tests"; in the case of THC or others, these loads do not represent intoxication compare to ethanol breath tests that measure instantaneous blood alcohol levels , but an integration of past consumption over an approximately month-long window.

    This is because they are fat-soluble, lipophilic molecules that accumulate in fatty tissues. Research shows the effect of cannabinoids might be modulated by aromatic compounds produced by the cannabis plant, called terpenes.

    This interaction would lead to the entourage effect. Nabiximols brand name Sativex is an aerosolized mist for oral administration containing a near 1: It is marketed by Bayer in Canada.

    Dronabinol brand name Marinol is a THC drug used to treat poor appetite, nausea, and sleep apnea. Cannabinoids can be separated from the plant by extraction with organic solvents. Hydrocarbons and alcohols are often used as solvents. However, these solvents are flammable and many are toxic.

    Supercritical solvent extraction with carbon dioxide is an alternative technique. Once extracted, isolated components can be separated using wiped film vacuum distillation or other distillation techniques. The structure of THC was first determined in Due to molecular similarity and ease of synthetic conversion, CBD was originally believed to be a natural precursor to THC. Endocannabinoids are substances produced from within the body that activate cannabinoid receptors.

    After the discovery of the first cannabinoid receptor in , scientists began searching for an endogenous ligand for the receptor. Anandamide was the first such compound identified as arachidonoyl ethanolamine.

    The name is derived from the Sanskrit word for bliss and - amide. It has a pharmacology similar to THC , although its structure is quite different. Anandamide binds to the central CB 1 and, to a lesser extent, peripheral CB 2 cannabinoid receptors, where it acts as a partial agonist. All of these compounds are members of a family of signalling lipids called N -acylethanolamines , which also includes the noncannabimimetic palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide , which possess anti-inflammatory and orexigenic effects, respectively.

    Many N -acylethanolamines have also been identified in plant seeds [63] and in molluscs. Another endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, binds to both the CB 1 and CB 2 receptors with similar affinity, acting as a full agonist at both.

    In , a third, ether -type endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether noladin ether , was isolated from porcine brain. It binds primarily to the CB 1 receptor, and only weakly to the CB 2 receptor. A fifth endocannabinoid, virodhamine, or O -arachidonoyl-ethanolamine OAE , was discovered in June In rats, virodhamine was found to be present at comparable or slightly lower concentrations than anandamide in the brain , but 2- to 9-fold higher concentrations peripherally.

    Recent evidence has highlighted lysophosphatidylinositol as the endogenous ligand to novel endocannabinoid receptor GPR55 , making it a strong contender as the sixth endocannabinoid. Endocannabinoids serve as intercellular ' lipid messengers ', signaling molecules that are released from one cell and activating the cannabinoid receptors present on other nearby cells. Although in this intercellular signaling role they are similar to the well-known monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine , endocannabinoids differ in numerous ways from them.

    For instance, they are used in retrograde signaling between neurons. Furthermore, endocannabinoids are lipophilic molecules that are not very soluble in water. They are not stored in vesicles and exist as integral constituents of the membrane bilayers that make up cells. They are believed to be synthesized 'on-demand' rather than made and stored for later use.

    The mechanisms and enzymes underlying the biosynthesis of endocannabinoids remain elusive and continue to be an area of active research. The endocannabinoid 2-AG has been found in bovine and human maternal milk.

    A review by Matties et al. It is proposed that the competition of leptin and cannabinoids for Tlc1 is implicated in energy homeostasis. They are, in effect, released from the postsynaptic cell and act on the presynaptic cell, where the target receptors are densely concentrated on axonal terminals in the zones from which conventional neurotransmitters are released.

    Activation of cannabinoid receptors temporarily reduces the amount of conventional neurotransmitter released. This endocannabinoid-mediated system permits the postsynaptic cell to control its own incoming synaptic traffic. The ultimate effect on the endocannabinoid-releasing cell depends on the nature of the conventional transmitter being controlled. For instance, when the release of the inhibitory transmitter GABA is reduced, the net effect is an increase in the excitability of the endocannabinoid-releasing cell.

    On the converse, when release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is reduced, the net effect is a decrease in the excitability of the endocannabinoid-releasing cell. Endocannabinoids are hydrophobic molecules. They cannot travel unaided for long distances in the aqueous medium surrounding the cells from which they are released and therefore act locally on nearby target cells.

    Hence, although emanating diffusely from their source cells, they have much more restricted spheres of influence than do hormones , which can affect cells throughout the body. Historically, laboratory synthesis of cannabinoids was often based on the structure of herbal cannabinoids, and a large number of analogs have been produced and tested, especially in a group led by Roger Adams as early as and later in a group led by Raphael Mechoulam.

    Newer compounds are no longer related to natural cannabinoids or are based on the structure of the endogenous cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids are particularly useful in experiments to determine the relationship between the structure and activity of cannabinoid compounds, by making systematic, incremental modifications of cannabinoid molecules. When synthetic cannabinoids are used recreationally, they present significant health dangers to users. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Part of a series on Cannabis Arts Culture. Drug culture Illegal drug trade Psychedelia. Cannabinoid receptor type 1. Cannabinoid receptor type 2. Endocannabinoids [ edit ] Further information on the roles and regulation of the endocannabinoids: This section needs additional citations for verification.

    Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Journal of Natural Products. Pain, nausea and vomiting, spasticity, and harms". A Cellular and Molecular Approach. Progress in Lipid Research. Incorporation experiments with 13 C-labeled glucoses". European Journal of Biochemistry. US Patent application number: British Journal of Pharmacology.

    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. Retrieved 6 October American Journal of Botany. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor-dependent and -independent immunomodulatory effects" PDF. The Journal of Biological Chemistry.

    Phytochemical Aspects and Therapeutic Perspective of Cannabinoids in Cancer Treatment

    Keywords: Cannabis, endocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, receptors, membranes, arachidonic acid, addiction, . that lead to changes in the cognitive, affective and psycho- .. that 2-AG biosynthesis is possible via two main pathways. Cannabis sativa; structure-activity relationship; phytocannabinoids; . The independence of the biosynthetic pathways leading to CBD and to. The phytocannabinoid acids are non-enzymatically decarboxylated into their Pathway. Leading. to. Phytocannabinoids. The biosynthesis of cannabinoids.

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    Keywords: Cannabis, endocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, receptors, membranes, arachidonic acid, addiction, . that lead to changes in the cognitive, affective and psycho- .. that 2-AG biosynthesis is possible via two main pathways.


    Cannabis sativa; structure-activity relationship; phytocannabinoids; . The independence of the biosynthetic pathways leading to CBD and to.

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