The clinical approval of cannabinoids is the antitumour effects of cannabinoids are. Besides palliative properties of cannabinoids, it has been shown in wide range of in vitro and animal models, that they also exhibit anticancer. Though cannabinoids are clinically used for anti-palliative effects, recent studies open a promising possibility as anti-cancer agents. They have been shown to.
effects of cannabinoids Anticancer
The chemical structure of THC, a phytocannabinoid. Phytocannabinoids bind the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the body. They are classically associated with the nervous system. However, further research has shown that cannabinoid receptors also exist elsewhere, including the surfaces of cancer cells, and the host cells that interact with them.
These two agents include the induction of programmed cell death and destruction to which cancer cells are usually very resistant. Cannabinoids have also been associated with the ability to stop cancer cells from growing and dividing. Additionally, they may discourage metastasis and angiogenesis tumors growing their own mini blood vessels to survive. This feature could be due to the roles that have been discovered for CB1 and CB2 in the regulation of epithelial cell form and function, cell survival, and cellular migration.
On the other hand, these results are also associated with animal or cell culture models. There is very little data on the in vivo effects of cannabinoids on human tumors.
There are a number of arguments against the use of cannabinoids in cancer treatment. One is that the more recent clinical trials have tested them with other, established anti-cancer drugs such as vincristine and cytarabine. Therefore, it is difficult to separate their potential benefits from those of the more traditional therapies. Furthermore, cannabinoid intake is increasingly toxic to the liver, over time. This may reduce its safety and tolerability profile during clinical development.
On the other hand, a recent in vitro trial of both cannabinoids in leukemia reported that their combination reduced the minimum drug concentrations needed to affect survival in the cancer cells, compared to either cannabinoid alone. Finally, it is not as yet clear if whole-cannabis preparations should even be used in the cancer clinic.
It should be noted that cannabinoid derivatives e. Therefore, there may be many promising interests in this emerging form of therapy, more than just for patients. Scientists in Israel investigating the applications of cannabis for cancer treatment.
Accordingly, the case for cannabinoids in the cancer world appears to be gaining momentum through the efforts of companies operating in the legal-cannabis, cannabis-derivative, and related product industry.
For example, one of the latest news stories on a clinical trial reporting positive results associated with THC activity in prostate cancer cells was released by Cannabics Pharmaceuticals Inc. It has been recently shown that cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, inhibit cell cycle progression of human breast cancer cells. THC activates JunD both by upregulating gene expression and by translocating the protein to the nuclear compartment, and these events are accompanied by a decrease in cell proliferation.
Of interest, neither JunD activation nor proliferation inhibition was observed in human non-tumour mammary epithelial cells exposed to THC. In summary, this is the first report showing not only that cannabinoids regulate JunD but, more generally, that JunD activation reduces the proliferation of cancer cells, which points to a new target to inhibit breast cancer progression.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management February This study compared the efficacy of a tetrahydrocannabinol: CBD extract, a nonopioid analgesic endocannabinoid system modulator, and a THC extract, with placebo, in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer.
In total, patients with cancer pain, who experienced inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, entered a two-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to THC: CBD compared with placebo Twice as many patients taking THC: This study shows that THC: CBD extract is efficacious for relief of pain in patients with advanced cancer pain not fully relieved by strong opioids.
Journal of Drug Targeting September 21, Cannabinoids present an interesting therapeutic potential as antiemetics, appetite stimulants in debilitating diseases cancer, AIDS and multiple sclerosis , analgesics, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and cancer, among other conditions.
However, despite their high clinical potential, only few dosage forms are available to date. The in vitro drug release studies showed that the encapsulated drug was released over a two week period. As THC has shown therapeutic potential as anticancer drug, the efficacy of the microspheres was tested on different cancer cell lines.
Interestingly, the microspheres were able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation during the nine-day study period. All the above results suggest that the use of biodegradable microspheres would be a suitable alternative delivery system for THC administration. The dual effects of delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol on cholangiocarcinoma cells: Currently, only gemcitabine plus platinum demonstrates the considerable activity for cholangiocarcinoma.
The anticancer effect of Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol THC , the principal active component of cannabinoids has been demonstrated in various kinds of cancers. We therefore evaluate the antitumor effects of THC on cholangiocarcinoma cells. Both cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and surgical specimens from cholangiocarcinoma patients expressed cannabinoid receptors. THC inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis.
Consequently, THC is potentially used to retard cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and metastasis. International Journal of Cancer November Deregulation of cell survival pathways and resistance to apoptosis are widely accepted to be fundamental aspects of tumorigenesis.
As in many tumours, the aberrant growth and survival of colorectal tumour cells is dependent upon a small number of highly activated signalling pathways, the inhibition of which elicits potent growth inhibitory or apoptotic responses in tumour cells.
Accordingly, there is considerable interest in therapeutics that can modulate survival signalling pathways and target cancer cells for death. Here, we report that CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells, and show for the first time that THC induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.
These data suggest an important role for CB1 receptors and BAD in the regulation of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. The use of THC, or selective targeting of the CB1 receptor, may represent a novel strategy for colorectal cancer therapy. Targeting cannabinoid receptors to treat leukemia: Targeting cannabinoid receptors has recently been shown to trigger apoptosis and offers a novel treatment modality against malignancies of the immune system.
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Other studies have shown that cannabinoids have anti-cancer effects, and can work with the body's immune system, enhancing its response to. Previous research has shown that cannabinoids can help lessen side effects of anti-cancer therapies. Now a new review has examined their. conducted a systematic review that highlights the potential anticancer effect of cannabinoids in prostate cancer using both in vitro and in vivo.