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CBD appears to have anti-inflammatory properties, says Dr. Clauw, which is one reason the beauty industry has championed it as a new anti-aging ingredient in many skincare products and spa treatments. Francesca Fusco, MD, a dermatologist based in New York City, recently told Health that CBD oil is a rich source of fatty acids and other skin-healthy nutrients, and that it may improve hydration and minimize moisture loss. A few studies have also suggested that CBD oil may inhibit the growth of acne , although this hypothesis has only been tested in laboratory cell cultures—not in actual humans.
Parents of autistic children may look to CBD as a potential treatment, but they should know that research in this area is really just beginning, says Vandrey. Research conducted by Vandrey and his colleagues has even shown that some CBD products contain significant levels of THC —which could get a child high and cause other unpleasant side effects.
Clinical trials have shown that the drug Epidiolex—a derivative of CBD—can help reduce seizures in children with two rare forms of epilepsy: THC does come with a long list of health benefits too, but the clinical use of this cannabis compound is often limited by its unwanted psychoactive side effects.
For this reason, interest in non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids , such as CBD, has substantially increased in recent years. This is what makes CBD so appealing to the medical community, as the cause of psychoactive side effects has been a major barrier in the acceptance of medical marijuana.
For this reason, CBD benefits extend to being used in clinical trials on young children with epilepsy. As the CBD oil market continues to grow, more and more products are being sold online or in your local health food stores. You can find many types of CBD and each one is used in a different way. The most common types of CBD available include:. You may notice that some CBD products are made with hemp oil , which can be confusing.
What exactly is the difference between CBD oil and hemp oil? Hemp oil also called hemp seed oil is extracted from the hemp seeds of the hemp plant and it contains very little or no THC.
Marijuana, on the other hand, has THC levels above 0. It is legal to purchase CBD oil that comes from the hemp plant because it contains less than 0. This is good news for consumers who are looking to purchase CBD oil legally and for farmers who can now profit from hemp.
The hemp seed oil in your local grocery store is extracted from the seeds of the plant and can be used for adding flavor to a range of recipes. Hemp seed oil is also popular because it serves as a source of important nutrients, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, terpenes and proteins. What about cannabis oil? These trichomes are tiny, hair-like crystals that cover the leaves and buds of the cannabis plant.
Trichomes produce the hundreds of known cannabinoids that can be found in marijuana. Research shows that cannabis oil has therapeutic value , as it works to improve sleep disorders, relieve anxiety, improve appetite, reduce pain, boost heart health and maybe even help to prevent cancer.
You can only purchase cannabis oil legally in certain states and each state has specific laws addressing how and when you can obtain cannabis oil. And because cannabis oil does contain THC, there are more potential side effects associated with its use. It may decrease your ability to concentrate and think, lead to short-term cognitive impairment, and there have been reports of adverse effects of vaping cannabis oil with concentrated THC levels.
However, CBD products that are derived from industrial hemp are being sold legally, but only under the strict regulations of the Farm Bill. Under the new bill, legal hemp-derived CBD products must contain less than 0.
So, as you can see, the legality of CBD can be a bit a tricky and the laws regarding the compound continue to change. To add to the confusion, each state has specific requirements and conditions that need to be followed in order to use CBD derived from marijuana legally. As of , you can purchase CBD derived from the marijuana plant legally in 46 states and 3 territories with a prescription for medicinal usage. The laws for each state is different, especially when it comes to how much THC can legally be present in the product.
Among common CBD benefits, natural pain relief tops the list for many. Evidence suggests that cannabinoids may prove useful in pain modulation by inhibiting neuronal transmission in pain pathways. A study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine found that CBD significantly suppressed chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rodents without causing analgesic tolerance.
Researchers suggest that CBD and other nonpsychoactive components of marijuana may represent a novel class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain. According to a meta-analysis conducted in Canada , the combination of CBD and THC buccal spray was found to be effective in treating neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis , which can be debilitating for 50 percent to 70 percent of MS patients.
It appears to have a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs, as seen in using behavioral and neurochemical techniques in animal studies. Additionally, studies show that CBD prevents human experimental psychosis and is effective in open case reports and clinical trials in patients with schizophrenia , with a remarkable safety profile.
Studies using animal models of anxiety and involving healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. A study aimed to compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test on healthy control patients and treatment-naive patients with social anxiety disorder. A total of 24 never-treated patients with social anxiety disorder were given either CBD or placebo 1.
Researchers found that pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety , cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, and significantly decreased alertness in anticipation of their speech. The placebo group presented higher anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort.
A study published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics found for the first time that CBD potently and selectively inhibited the growth of different breast tumor cell lines and exhibited significantly less potency in non-cancer cells. In , researchers added light on the cellular mechanism through which CBD induces cell death in breast cancer cells.
They showed that CBD induced a concentration-dependent cell death of both estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells. They also found that the effective concentrations of CBD in tumor cells have little effect on non-tumorigenic, mammary cells.
CBD behaves as a non-toxic compound and studies show that doses of milligrams per day for six weeks did not show any overt toxicity in humans, suggesting that it can be used for prolonged treatment. Cannabis has been used for centuries for the suppression of nausea and vomiting. Research has revealed that among more than 80 cannabinoid compounds found in marijuana, both the intoxicant THC and the non-intoxicant CBD helps to get rid of nausea and vomiting in animal studies.
Researchers found that CBD acts in a diphasic manner , meaning that in low doses it suppresses toxin-induced vomiting, but in high doses it increases nausea or has no effect. Nineteen responses met the inclusion criteria for the study: The average number of anti-epileptic drugs tried before using CBD cannabis was Clinical depression is a serious mood disorder characterized by persistent sadness and loss of interest, sometimes leading to decreased appetite and energy and suicidal thoughts.
Commonly used pharmaceuticals for depression often target serotonin, a chemical messenger that is believed to act as a mood stabilizer. The neural network of the endocannabinoid system works similarly to the way that serotonin, dopamine, and other systems do, and, according to some research, cannabinoids have an effect on serotonin levels.
Whereas a low dose of THC increases serotonin, high doses cause a decrease that could worsen the condition. CBD products with a ratio of Specifically, products made with Valentine X or Electra 4 are more energizing, helping relieve depression. When low energy is an issue, sativa or other stimulating strains can be helpful for improving energy and focus when THC can be tolerated.
Varieties that are high in the terpene limonene are recommended for mood elevation. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range before going to the next, until symptoms subside.
The micro to standard dose is usually recommended to treat depression. Vaporized or smoked cannabis is recommended for relief of immediate symptoms, or a boost in dosage, and it can also be useful for sleep issues. The Cannabis Health Index CHI is an evidence-based scoring system for cannabis in general, not just CBD effects and its effectiveness on various health issues based on currently available research data.
Using this rubric and based on twenty-one studies, cannabis rated in the possible-to-probable range of efficacy for treatment of depression. Research in called for clinical trials to look into the effectiveness of cannabinoids for bipolar disorder manic depression. It also works on the GABA-glutamate system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Its main role is restoring balance through inhibition when levels are too high and enhancement when they are too low.
This is the most likely reason phytocannabinoids in general and CBD specifically are able to regulate depression and anxiety. The scientific inquiry into cannabis over the past several decades has confirmed that it is an effective and safe analgesic for many kinds of pain. Of all the reasons that people use CBD today, pain is the most common.
The same can be said of cannabis in general. In the United States, over seventy million people suffer from chronic pain, which is defined as experiencing over one hundred days per year of pain. Physicians differentiate between neuropathic usually chronic and nociceptive pains usually time-limited , and cannabis works on most neuropathic and many nociceptive types of pain. A number of studies have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system is both centrally and peripherally involved in the processing of pain signals.
Cannabinoids can be used along with opioid medications, and a number of studies have demonstrated that they can reduce the amount of opioids needed, lessen the buildup of tolerance, and reduce the severity of withdrawal.
It is suggested that patients work with a health care practitioner experienced in recommending CBD oil or medicinal cannabis so that dosage and delivery methods can be developed and fine-tuned on an individual basis. Oral CBD products with a ratio of Most discussions of treating pain with CBD suggest that finding the right dosage is critical. Always start with the micro dose to test sensitivity and go up as needed within the dosing range by body weight until symptoms subside.
If CBD-dominant products alone are not enough to treat a particular case, products with a higher ratio of THC are sometimes recommended to better manage pain. For day use, more stimulating, sativa varieties with higher concentrations of myrcene could be added to the formula. In general, for pain, and especially for evening and nighttime, indica strains are favored for their relaxing, sedative effect.
A person without experience with THC should use caution and titrate slowly up to higher doses. Research as well as patient feedback have indicated that, in general, a ratio of 4: THC is the most effective for both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Each individual is different, however—for some, a 1: Chemotypes high in beta-caryophyllene, myrcene, and linalool provide additional pain relief and increase the effectiveness of other cannabinoids for analgesia.
For relief of immediate symptoms, as in a flare-up of pain, vaporizing or smoking work well. The medication effect is immediate and lasts one to three hours, whereas most ingested products take thirty to sixty minutes before taking effect faster on an empty stomach and last six to eight hours. Sublingual sprays or tinctures taken as liquid drops also take effect quickly and last longer than inhaled products. When pain is localized, topical products can be applied.
Topicals affect the cells near application and through several layers of tissue but do not cross the blood-brain barrier and are, therefore, not psychoactive.
The skin has the highest amount and concentration of CB2 receptors in the body. Considering all of the studies together, which number over forty for various types of pain , CBD and cannabis are shown to have a rating of likely probable efficacy.
It is one of the best-substantiated medical uses of cannabinoids. Sativex, a cannabis plant—derived oromucosal spray containing equal proportions of THC and CBD, has been approved in a number of countries for use to treat specific types of pain. Numerous randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Sativex for treatment of central and peripheral neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer pain. A study showed that CBD and CBC stimulated descending pain-blocking pathways in the nervous system and caused analgesia by interacting with several target proteins involved in nociceptive control.
Sleep Disorders Insomnia, Sleep Apnea Cannabis and sleep have a complex relationship that is only beginning to be understood by science. In general, for most people, indica strains are more relaxing and effective for sleep disorders, whereas sativa strains are more stimulating and tend to keep people awake.
Several studies conducted between and demonstrated the variable effect of different cannabinoids on sleep. Another study found CBD to be wake-inducing for most subjects, though some reported better sleep a few hours after taking it. However, a significant number of people find THC, even indica strains, will make the mind more active. For these people, CBD oil can benefit them and tends to work well, providing the relaxation and calm for the mental as well as the physical body. For these people, CBD taken at nighttime as part of a bedtime regime produces a restful sleep, not the alertness produced in the daytime.
This bidirectional effect of CBD is the result of balancing the endocannabinoid system.
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