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In the aftermath of the Eureka Rebellion , mass public-support for the plight of the miners resulted in major political changes to the colony, including improvements in working conditions across mining, agriculture, manufacturing and other local industries. At least twenty nationalities took part in the rebellion, giving some indication of immigration flows at the time. With the wealth brought in from the gold rush and the subsequent need for public buildings, a program of grand civic construction soon began.
The layout of the inner suburbs on a largely one-mile grid pattern, cut through by wide radial boulevards and parklands surrounding the central city, was largely established [ by whom?
These areas rapidly filled with the ubiquitous terrace houses, as well as with detached houses and grand mansions, while some of the major roads developed as shopping streets. Melbourne quickly became a major finance centre, home to several banks, the Royal Mint , and in Australia's first stock exchange. Members of the Melbourne Football Club codified Australian football in ,  and in , the first Melbourne Cup race was held.
Melbourne acquired its first public monument, the Burke and Wills statue, in With the gold rush largely over by , Melbourne continued to grow on the back of continuing gold-mining, as the major port for exporting the agricultural products of Victoria especially wool and with a developing manufacturing sector protected by high tariffs.
An extensive radial railway network spread into the countryside from the late s. Construction started on further major public buildings in the s and s, such as the Supreme Court , Government House , and the Queen Victoria Market.
The central city filled up with shops and offices, workshops, and warehouses. Large banks and hotels faced the main streets, with fine townhouses in the east end of Collins Street, contrasting with tiny cottages down laneways within the blocks. The s was a decade of extraordinary growth, when consumer confidence, easy access to credit, and steep increases in land prices led to an enormous amount of construction.
During this 'land boom', Melbourne reputedly became the richest city in the world,  and the largest after London in the British Empire. The decade began with the Melbourne International Exhibition in , held in the large purpose-built Exhibition Building.
In a telephone exchange was established and in the same year the foundations of St Paul's , were laid; in electric light was installed in the Eastern Market, and in the following year a generating station capable of supplying 2, incandescent lamps was in operation. In , visiting English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the twentieth century and is still used today by Melburnians.
In , the Exhibition Building hosted a second event even larger than the first, the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition, spurring construction of numerous hotels including the room Federal Hotel , The Palace Hotel in Bourke Street both since demolished , and the doubling in size of the Grand Windsor. A brash boosterism that had typified Melbourne during this time ended in the early s with a severe economic depression, sending the local finance and property industries into a period of chaos   during which 16 small "land banks" and building societies collapsed, and limited companies went into liquidation.
The Melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the Australian economic depression of the s and the Australian banking crisis of The effects of the depression on the city were profound, with virtually no new construction until the late s. At the time of Australia's federation on 1 January , Melbourne became the seat of government of the federation. The first federal parliament was convened on 9 May in the Royal Exhibition Building, subsequently moving to the Victorian Parliament House where it was located until , when it was moved to Canberra.
The Governor-General of Australia resided at Government House in Melbourne until and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century. In the immediate years after World War II , Melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by post-war immigration to Australia , primarily from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean.
Height limits in the CBD were lifted in , after the construction of ICI House , transforming the city's skyline with the introduction of skyscrapers. Suburban expansion then intensified, served by new indoor malls beginning with Chadstone Shopping Centre. Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either demolished or subdivided. To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial public housing projects in the inner city by the Housing Commission of Victoria , which resulted in demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers.
The Bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the modernisation of Melbourne. Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda Junction , the widening of Hoddle Street and then the extensive Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into a car-dominated environment.
Australia's financial and mining booms during and resulted in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto , among others in the city. Nauru 's then booming economy resulted in several ambitious investments in Melbourne, such as Nauru House. Melbourne experienced an economic downturn between and , following the collapse of several local financial institutions.
In , the newly elected Kennett government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works coupled with the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a focus on major events and sports tourism. Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such as health, education and public transport infrastructure.
Since the mids, Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market. Major inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank , Port Melbourne , Melbourne Docklands and more recently, South Wharf. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics , Melbourne sustained the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city in the three years ended June From , the growth of the city extended into "green wedges" and beyond the city's urban growth boundary.
Predictions of the city's population reaching 5 million people pushed the state government to review the growth boundary in as part of its Melbourne Five Million strategy. At this time, more new jobs were created in Melbourne than any other Australian city—almost as many as the next two fastest growing cities, Brisbane and Perth, combined,  and Melbourne's property market remained highly priced,  resulting in historically high property prices and widespread rent increases.
Melbourne is in the southeastern part of mainland Australia, within the state of Victoria. Geologically, it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east, and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port Phillip.
The southeastern suburbs are situated on the Selwyn fault which transects Mount Martha and Cranbourne. It extends northward through the undulating bushland valleys of the Yarra's tributaries— Moonee Ponds Creek toward Tullamarine Airport , Merri Creek , Darebin Creek and Plenty River —to the outer suburban growth corridors of Craigieburn and Whittlesea.
The city reaches southeast through Dandenong to the growth corridor of Pakenham towards West Gippsland , and southward through the Dandenong Creek valley, the Mornington Peninsula and the city of Frankston taking in the peaks of Olivers Hill , Mount Martha and Arthurs Seat , extending along the shores of Port Phillip as a single conurbation to reach the exclusive suburb of Portsea and Point Nepean.
In the west, it extends along the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries north towards Sunbury and the foothills of the Macedon Ranges , and along the flat volcanic plain country towards Melton in the west, Werribee at the foothills of the You Yangs granite ridge south west of the CBD. The Little River, and the township of the same name, marks the border between Melbourne and neighbouring Geelong city.
This temperature differential is most pronounced in the spring and summer months and can cause strong cold fronts to form. These cold fronts can be responsible for varied forms of severe weather from gales to thunderstorms and hail , large temperature drops and heavy rain.
Winters, however, are usually very stable, but rather damp and often cloudy. Relatively narrow streams of heavy showers can often affect the same places usually the eastern suburbs for an extended period, while the rest of Melbourne and surrounds stays dry. Overall, Melbourne is, owing to the rain shadow of the Otway Ranges , nonetheless drier than average for southern Victoria. Dewpoint temperatures in the summer range from 9. Melbourne is also prone to isolated convective showers forming when a cold pool crosses the state, especially if there is considerable daytime heating.
These showers are often heavy and can include hail, squalls, and significant drops in temperature, but they often pass through very quickly with a rapid clearing trend to sunny and relatively calm weather and the temperature rising back to what it was before the shower. This can occur in the space of minutes and can be repeated many times a day, giving Melbourne a reputation for having "four seasons in one day",  a phrase that is part of local popular culture.
The average temperature of the sea ranges from Like many urban areas, Melbourne faces environmental issues, many related to the city's large urban footprint and urban sprawl and the demand for infrastructure and services. One such issue is the impact of drought on water supply. Periodic droughts and consistently high summer temperatures deplete Melbourne's water supplies, and climate change may exacerbate the long-term impact of these factors.
Neither project was used extensively before the drought broke during , and therefore both have been criticised as ' white elephants '. In response to attribution of recent climate change , in the City of Melbourne set a target to reduce carbon emissions to net zero by  and Moreland City Council established the Zero Moreland program.
Not all metropolitan municipalities have followed suit, with the City of Glen Eira notably deciding in not to become carbon-neutral.
The Department of Sustainability and Environment partially addresses this problem by regularly burning off. Air quality , by world standards, is classified as good. It was subject to controversy and strict regulations among fears that beaches and marine wildlife could be affected by the disturbance of heavy metals and other industrial sediments. Up to , cigarette butts enter the storm water runoff every day. The grid's southern edge fronts onto the Yarra River.
More recent office, commercial and public developments in the adjoining districts of Southbank and Docklands have made these areas into extensions of the CBD in all but name. Melbourne's CBD, compared with other Australian cities, has unrestricted height limits.
As a result, it has become Australia's most densely populated area with approximately 19, residents per square kilometre,  and is home to more skyscrapers than any other Australian city , the tallest being Eureka Tower , situated in Southbank. This, coupled with the popularity of the private automobile after , led to the auto-centric urban structure now present today in the middle and outer suburbs.
Much of metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low density sprawl, whilst its inner city areas feature predominantly medium-density, transit-oriented urban forms. The city centre, Docklands, St. Kilda Road and Southbank areas feature high-density forms. Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as the garden state.
Melbourne's parks are often considered the best public parks in all of Australia's major cities. There are also a number of significant state parks just outside Melbourne. Melbourne has minimal public housing and high demand for rental housing, which is becoming unaffordable for some. Melbourne is experiencing high population growth, generating high demand for housing. This housing boom has increased house prices and rents, as well as the availability of all types of housing. Subdivision regularly occurs in the outer areas of Melbourne, with numerous developers offering house and land packages.
However, after 10 years [ when? The city is recognised for its mix of modern architecture which intersects with an extensive range of nineteenth and early twentieth century buildings.
The city also features the Shrine of Remembrance , which was built as a memorial to the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war. The now demolished Queen Anne style APA Australian Building , the world's 3rd tallest building at the time of completion,  is said to have anticipated the skyscraper race in New York City and Chicago.
In , the city contained a total of high-rise buildings, skyscrapers and a further 28 under construction and 60 planned. The CBD is dominated by modern office buildings including the Rialto Towers , built on the site of several grand classical Victorian buildings, two of which — the Rialto Building designed by William Pitt and the Winfield Building designed by Charles D'Ebro and Richard Speight — still remain today and more recently high-rise apartment buildings including Eureka Tower , which is listed as the 13th tallest residential building in the world in January Residential architecture is not defined by a single architectural style, but rather an eclectic mix of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings in the metropolitan area particularly in areas of urban sprawl.
Freestanding dwellings with relatively large gardens are perhaps the most common type of housing outside inner city Melbourne. Victorian terrace housing, townhouses and historic Italianate , Tudor revival and Neo-Georgian mansions are all common in neighbourhoods such as Toorak.
Melbourne is an international cultural centre and the city serves as Australia's cultural capital, with prominent offerings in the form of major events and festivals, drama, musicals, comedy, music, art, architecture, literature, film and television. For seven years in a row from to it held the top position in a survey by The Economist Intelligence Unit of the world's most liveable cities , partly due to its broad cultural offerings. The culture of the city is an important drawcard for tourists, of which 2.
The State Library of Victoria is one of Australia's oldest cultural institutions and one of many public and university libraries across the city. Melbourne also has Australia's widest range of bookstores, as well the nation's largest publishing sector. Several major literary prizes are open to local writers including the Melbourne Prize for Literature and the Victorian Premier's Literary Awards.
Notable writers and poets from Melbourne include Thomas Browne , C. Dennis , Germaine Greer and Peter Carey. Melbourne's first theatre, the Pavilion, opened several years after the city's founding, in The art deco Palais Theatre , a landmark of the St Kilda foreshore , is Australia's largest seated theatre with a capacity of up to 3, people.
Established in , the National Gallery of Victoria is Australia's oldest and largest public art museum, and the most visited museum in the Southern Hemisphere 19th globally. The city is also home to the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art. Melbourne is regarded as one of the world's major street art centres and  readers of Lonely Planet voted the city's street art and laneways as Australia's most popular cultural attraction.
Melbourne is also the second home of the national Opera Australia after it merged with the defunct Victoria State Opera in The Story of the Kelly Gang , the world's first feature film , was shot in Melbourne in Melbourne has been referred to as "the live music capital of the world", having more music venues per capita than any other city.
Melbourne has long been regarded as Australia's sporting capital due to the role it has played in the development of Australian sport, the range and quality of its sporting events and venues, and its high rates of spectatorship and participation. The city has hosted a number of significant international sporting events, most notably the Summer Olympic Games , the first Olympic Games held outside Europe and the United States.
First held in and declared a public holiday for all Melburnians in , the Melbourne Cup is the world's richest handicap horse race and is known as "the race that stops a nation". Cricket is one of the longest established sports in Melbourne with the Melbourne Cricket Club forming within three years of settlement.
The largest cricket stadium in the world, the MCG is notable for hosting the first Test match and the first One Day International , played between Australia and England in and respectively. It is also the home of the National Sports Museum. The Melbourne Football Club codified the first laws of the game the following year, making it the world's oldest major football code.
Nine of the league's teams are based in the Melbourne metropolitan area: Melbourne hosts up to five AFL matches per round during the home and away season, attracting an average of 40, spectators per game. Rowing is also a large part of Melbourne's sporting identity, with a number of clubs located on the Yarra River, out of which many Australian Olympians trained. The city previously held the nation's premier long distance swimming event the annual Race to Prince's Bridge , in the Yarra River.
Melbourne has twice hosted the Presidents Cup golf tournament, in becoming the first country to hold the tournament outside of the USA. The event was first held in Melbourne in and then again in , both times at the Royal Melbourne Golf Club. The biannual event is again scheduled for at the same venue. Melbourne has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in finance, manufacturing, research, IT, education, logistics, transportation and tourism. Melbourne houses the headquarters of many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country based on revenue , and five of the largest seven in the country based on market capitalisation  ANZ , BHP Billiton the world's largest mining company , the National Australia Bank , CSL and Telstra , as well as such representative bodies and think tanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions.
The city is home to Australia's second busiest seaport , after Port Botany in Sydney. Melbourne is also an important financial centre. In the Global Financial Centres Index , Melbourne was ranked as having the 21st most competitive financial centre in the world. The city was rated 41st within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index ,  second only to Sydney 12th in Australia.
Melbourne is Australia's second-largest industrial centre. It is also home to a wide variety of other manufacturers, ranging from petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals to fashion garments, paper manufacturing and food processing.
The city also boasts a research and development hub for Ford Australia , as well as a global design studio and technical centre for General Motors and Toyota respectively. CSL , one of the world's top five biotech companies, and Sigma Pharmaceuticals have their headquarters in Melbourne.
The two are the largest listed Australian pharmaceutical companies. In addition, tourism also plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with about 7. The Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world to live in according to its worldwide cost of living index in The Economist Intelligence Unit also has ranked Melbourne as the most liveable city in the world for seven consecutive years The other most common countries of birth were the United Kingdom 3.
Melbourne has the largest Greek-speaking population outside Europe, a population comparable to some larger Greek cities like Larissa and Volos.
The Vietnamese surname Nguyen is the second most common in Melbourne's phone book after Smith. The cultural diversity is reflected in the city's restaurants that serve international cuisines. Over two-thirds of Melburnians speak only English at home Chinese mainly Cantonese and Mandarin is the second-most-common language spoken at home 3. Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants 48, finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake on percentage, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living.
In recent years, Melton , Wyndham and Casey , part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all local government areas in Australia. Melbourne could overtake Sydney in population by Melbourne's population could overtake that of Sydney by  or , according to the first scenario projected by the ABS, primarily due to greater internal migration losses assumed for Sydney.
After a trend of declining population density since World War II, the city has seen increased density in the inner and western suburbs , aided in part by Victorian Government planning, such as Postcode and Melbourne , which have aimed to curtail urban sprawl.
Surrounding inner-city suburbs experienced an increase in population density between and Carlton 9, people per km 2 and Fitzroy 7, Some of Australia's most prominent and well known schools are based in Melbourne. Of the top twenty high schools in Australia according to the Better Education ranking, six are in Melbourne. Furthermore, Melbourne was ranked the world's fourth top university city in after London, Boston and Tokyo in a poll commissioned by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.
Melbourne universities have campuses all over Australia and some internationally. Swinburne University has campuses in Malaysia , while Monash has a research centre based in Prato, Italy. The University of Melbourne, the second oldest university in Australia,  was ranked first among Australian universities in the THES international rankings. NewQuay Home to restaurants and cafes with cuisine from all over the world. Royal Park 'best bits' loop walk, Parkville.
How do I create a walk? Step 1 Zoom into the map to the start point of your walk. Click on the map. Your marker has been added! Add additional markers to build your walking route.
Add information into the summary and description sections. This makes the walk attractive and informative for other walkers. Step 2 Click on the route to add a Point of Interest. You can drag these if they are not in the right spot. Add a photo to each Point of Interest. This is a great way to make your walk look attractive and will be appreciated by other walkers. Having trouble uploading your photo? Make sure each photo is less than 2MB.
What information will you share about me? Can I change my walk? Be sure to check out the Southbank Promenade, with its great selection of restaurants alongside the River Yarra and Hardware Lane. Lygon Street has some excellent Italian restaurants to choose from. More about places to eat Melbourne Restaurants. Being the city it is, Melbourne has a great nightlife for those wanting to enjoy entertainment, concerts and live theatre as well as a variety of nightclubs to experience the latest dance and club music.
Melbourne also knows how to throw its share of world class dance parties. There is a good selection of Melbourne accommodation, including resorts and hotels to choose from, from the budget to the luxury 5 star. Private apartments are also a great way to stay in the city and of course there are plenty of motels. You can also search for other Victoria hotels and accommodation, complete with traveller reviews, maps, rates, Melbourne tourist information and events.
Must See Melbourne Places.
Map of Melbourne, VIC 3000
Map of Melbourne CBD. Map of Melbourne CBD. Légende du plan. Conditions d'utilisation. m. Gérer le compte. Créer une carte. Ouvrir une carte. Below are links to various maps of Melbourne including City of Melbourne, cycling and walking maps of Greater colourknot.inforne CBD MapThe City of . Regions, cities & towns · Search for accommodation · Experience Victoria Melway online is an interactive map that displays maps directly from the it for the first time, you will be presented with a map of Melbourne's CBD. To the north is the state of New South Wales, while its western edge borders South Australia.